Wonder woman

 Wonder Woman was created by the American psychologist and writer William Moulton Marston, with his wife and co-creator Elizabeth Holloway Marston, and artist H. G. Peter. Their cohabitantOlive Byrne, is credited as being Marston's muse for the iconic characters' physical appearance. Marston drew a great deal of inspiration from early feminists, and especially from birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger. The character first appeared in All Star Comics #8 in December 1941 and first cover-dated on Sensation Comics #1, January 1942. The Wonder Woman title has been published by DC Comics almost continuously except for a brief hiatus in 1986.[7]Wonder Woman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics.[1] The character is a founding member of the Justice League,demigoddess, and warrior princess of the Amazons, which are based on the Amazonsof Greek mythology. In her homeland, she is Princess Diana of Themyscira, and outside of her homeland, she is known by her secret identity Diana Prince.

Wonder Woman's origin story relates that she was sculpted from clay by her motherQueen Hippolyta, and given life along with superhuman powers as gifts by the Greek Gods. However, in recent years she has been depicted as the daughter of Zeus, and jointly raised by her mother Hippolyta and her aunts Antiope and Menalippe. Her Amazonian-training helped to develop a wide range of extraordinary skills in strategy, hunting and fighting. She possesses an arsenal of advanced technology, including theLasso of Truth, a pair of indestructible bracelets, a tiara which serves as a projectile, and, in older stories, a range of devices based on Amazon technology. Although Diana is 5,000 years old, her first exposure to non-Amazon society will have only come within the last 100 years. While the Amazons were originally created to protect "man's world," they ultimately abandoned it.

Wonder Woman was created during World War II; the character was initially depicted fighting Axis military forces as well as an assortment of colorful supervillains, although over time her stories came to place greater emphasis on characters, deities, and monsters from Greek mythology. Many stories depicted Wonder Woman rescuing herself from bondage, which inverted the "damsels in distress" trope that were common in comics during the 1940's. In the decades since her debut, Wonder Woman has gained a formidable cast of enemies bent on eliminating the Amazon, including classic villains such as AresHadesCheetahCirceDoctor Psycho, and Giganta, along with more recent adversaries such as the First Born. Wonder Woman has also regularly appeared in comic books featuring the superhero teams Justice Society (from 1941) and Justice League (from 1960).

 

Notable depictions of the character in other media include the 1975–1979 Wonder Woman TV series starring Lynda Carter, as well as animated series such as the Super Friends and Justice League. Since Carter's television series, studios struggled to introduce a new live-action Wonder Woman to audiences, although the character continued to feature in a variety of toys and merchandise, as well as animated adaptations of DC properties, including a direct-to-DVD animated feature. Attempts to return Wonder Woman to television have included a television pilot for NBC in 2011, closely followed by another stalled production for The CWGal Gadot portrayed Wonder Woman in the 2016 film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, marking the character's feature film debut after over 70 years of history. Gadot will also star in the character's first solo live-action film Wonder Woman, set to be released on June 2, 2017. 



BC
 
2500-1800 Indus valley civilization.
599 Birth of Mahavir; Nirvana in 523. B.C.
563 Birth of Gautam Buddha; Nirvana in 483 B.C.
327-26 Alexander's invasion of India and the opening of land route between India and Europe.
269-232 Ashoka's reign.
261 Battle of Kalinga.
57 Beginning of Vikrama era.
30 Satvahana dynasty in Deooan. Pandyan empire in for south.
326 Alexander defeated Poras in the Battle of Hydaspas
261 Ashoka defeated Kalinga in the Kalinga War
A.D  
78 Beginning of Saka era.
320 Beginning of Gupta era
360 Samudragupta conquers the whole of N. India and much of the Deccan.
380-413 Rule of Chandragupta Vikramaditya, age of Kalidasa, renewal of induism.
606-647 Rule of Harshavardhana.
629-645 Hieun Tsang's visit in India.
622 Beginning of Hijra era.
712 Arab invasion of Sind by Mohd. bin Qasim.
1001-27 Repeated attacks of Mehmud Ghazni.
1025 Sacking of Somnath temple by Mehmud.
1191 First battle of Tarain in which Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Mohd. Ghori.
1192 Second battle of Tarain in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan.
1206 Qutubuddin Aibak founded the Ilbari/Slave dynasty.
1290 Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji established Khilji dynasty.
1290 Marco Polo visited India.
1320 Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq founded the Tughlaq dynasty.
1333 Ibn Batuta arrived in India.
1336 Harihara and Bukka founded the Vijaynagar empire
1347 Bahmani kingdom founded.
1398 Timur invades India.
 1451  Lodi dynasty comes in power in Delhi Sultanate.
 1469  Birth of Guru Nanak Dev.
 1498  Vasco da Gama lands at Calicut.
 1510  Portuguese capture Goa-Albuquerque Governor.
 1526  First Battle of Panipat in which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and established the Mughal dynasty.
 1556  Second battle of Panipat in which Akbar defeated Hemu.
 1565  Battle of Talikota in which Vijaynagar empire is defeated.
 1571  Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar.
1576 Battle of Haldighati in which Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap.
1582 Akbar started Din-i-llahi.
1600 English East India Company established.
1604 Compilation of Adi Granth.
1605 Death of Akbar.
1611 The English built a factory at Masulipatnam.
1627 Birth of Shivaji
1631 Death of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal. The building of Taj Mahal.
1658 Aurangzeb became Emperor of Delhi.
1666 Birth of Guru Gobind Singh.
1699 Guru Gobind Singh creates 'Khalsa'.
1707 Death of Aurangzeb, fall of Mughal empire begins.
1739 Nadir Shah invaded India; the peacock throne and the Kohinoor Diamond taken away from India.
A.D  
1853 First Indian railway from Bombay to Thane.
1857-58 First war of Indian Independence.
1858 British crown takes over the Indian Government; End of East India Company's rule.
1861 Birth of Rabindra Nath Tagore.
1869 Birth of M.K. Gandhi.
1885 Formation of Indian National Congress.
1905 Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.
1906 Formation of All India Muslim League.
1909 Minto-Morley Reforms.
1911 Delhi durbar held, partition of Bengal cancelled, capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
1914 World War I started.
1918 End of World War I.
1919 Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Montague- Chelmsford reforms.
1920 Non-cooperation Movement launched,
1921 Moplah rebellian in Malabar; visit of Prince of Wales.
1922 Chauri-Chaura incidence.
1923 Swaraj party formed.
1927 Simon Commission appointed.
1928 Visit of Simon Commission to India, death of Lala Lajpat Rai.
1929 Congress demanded'Poorna Swaraj'in Lahore session.
1930 January 26 celebrated as Independence Day throughout India, Dandi Salt Satyagraha, and First Round Table conference.
1931 Gandhi-lrvin Pact, Second Round Table Conference.
1932 Suppression of Congress Movement, Third Round Table Conference, Communal Award, Poona Pact.
1935 Government of India Act.
1937 Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces.
1939 Resignation of Congress ministries, beginning of World War II.
1942 Cripps Mission Plan, Quit India Movement, Formation of Indian National Army by S.C. Bose.
1945 Simla conference held and the failure of Wavell Plan, INA trials at Red Fort, Delhi.
1946 Cabinet Mission Plan, Formation of Interim Government, Direct Action Resolution by Muslim League.
1947 Mountbatten Plan of June 3 in which partition of India resolution is proposed, India divided, Pakistan created, both achieve independence, Jawarhar Lai Nehru becomes the I Prime Minister of India.
1948 Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi (Jan. 30).
1950 India became republic (Jan. 26).
1951 First Five Year Plan implemented.
1952 First General Elections held.
1953 Tenzing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hillary conquer Mt. Everest (May 29).
1954 Panchsheel agreement between India and China.
1956 Life insurance nationalized, State Reorganising Act comes into force.
1957 Second General Elections.
1958 Metric system of weights and measures introduced.
1959 Dalai Lama exiled; enters India.
1961 Liberation of Goa.
1962 Chinese attack on India. (Oct 20).
1964 Jawaharlal Nehru dies; Lai Bahadur Shastri becomes PM.
1965 Indo-Pak war.
1966 Tashkent Agreement reached, Death of Lai Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi became PM.
1967 Dr. Zakir Hussain elected President.
1968 Hargovind Khurana shares the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology.
1969 Death of. President Zakir Hussain (May 3). V. V. Giri elected President, Nationalization of 14 leading banks, Split in Indian National Congress.
1970 Former Indian ruler's privy purses abolished. Dr. C. V. Raman died (Nov. 2).
1971 Indo-Pak War over Bangladesh.
1972 Shimla Agreement signed.
1973 Manekshaw named India's first Field Marshal
1974 Nuclear explosion at Pokhran (May 18).
1975 Indian satellite 'Aryabhatta' launched, National emergency declared.
1976 The four Indian News agencies merged into a single News Agency known as 'Samachar', life of Lok Sabha extended by an year.
1977 Defeat of Mrs. Indira Gandhi in the election, Morarji Desai takes over as PM, emergency withdrawn.
1978 India launches world's biggest adult literacy plan (Oct. 2).
1979 Charan Singh became PM., Mother Teresa won the Nobel Peace Prize. 
1980 Indira Gandhi returns to power at centre, India launches first satellite using its own satellite launching vehicle (July. 18).
 1981  India launched APPLE, Khalistan activists hijack Indian Airlines Boeing 737 to Lahore.
 1982  Zail Singh sworn in as President, the 21-member Indian scientific expedition headed by Dr. S. Z. Qasim lands on Antarctica (Jan. 9), INSAT1 A launched, Ninth Asian Games held in New Delhi.
 1983  The 7th Non Aligned Summit in New Delhi, Kalpakkam Atomic Energy plant goes critical (July 2), INSAT-1 B launched (Aug. 30), Richard Attenborough's "Gandhi" wins 8 oscars.
 1984  Rakesh Sharma becomes India's first spaceman (Apr. 5), Bachendri Pal become the first Indian woman to scale Mt. Everest (May 23), Operation Blue Star, Assassination of Indira Gandhi (Oct 31), Rajiv Gandhi becomes PM, Bhopal Gas tragedy (Dec. 3).
 1985  Anti-defection Bill passed (Jan. 3), Azharuddin hits 3 centuries in 3 tests.
 1986  The first wholly Indian test-tube baby bom at KEM Hospital, Bombay (Aug. 7).
 1987  Sunil Gavaskar becomes the first batsman to score 10,000 runs in tests (Mar. 7), Goa becomes the 25th state of India (May 30).
 1988  India's first remote sensing satellite IRS 1 -A launched from Russia (Mar. 17), INSAT 1-C launched from French Guyana (July 22).
 1989  Successful test of Agni (May 22), laying of the foundation stone for the Ram Janmabhoomi temple of Ayodhya (Nov 10). V.P. Singh becomes the PM.
 1990  Successful launching of INSAT 1-D (June 12), Mandal Commission recommendationimplemented (Aug. 7), V.P. Singh tenders resignation (Nov. 7), S. Chandrashekhar becomes PM. (Nov. 10).
 1991  Rajiv Gandhi killed in a bomb blast (May 21), P. V. Narsimha Rao became PM. (June 21), Earthquake in Uttarkashi region (Oct. 20), Satyajit Ray got special Oscar award. (Dec.16).
 1992  Prithvi test fired (May 5), INSAT-2 A launched (July 10), Dr. Shanker Dayal Sharma became President (July 25), the domes of Babri Masjid demolished (Dec 6).
 1993  Panchayati Raj Act effective (Apr. 24), INSAT-2 B launched from French Guyana (July 23), Earthquake in Latur region (Sept. 30)
 1994  First heart transplant in the country (Aug. 3), PSLV D-2 launched (Oct. 15).
 1995  Punjab Chief Minister Beant Singh assassinated (Agu. 31), INSAT-2 C launched (Dec. 7)
 1996  A.B. Vajpayee became PM. (May 16), H.D. Deve Gowda became PM. (June 1), India-Bangladesh sign Ganga Water Pact (Dec. 12)
 1997  I. K. Gujral became PM. (Apr. 21), K. R. Narayanan sworn in as President (July 25), Mother Teresa passes away (Sept. 5), Arundhati Roy wins Booker Prize (Oct. 14), I. K. Gujral resigns as PM. (Nov. 28)
 1998  Konkan railway commissioned (Jan. 26), A. B. Vajpayee became PM. (Mar. 19), India conducted total 5 nuclear tests (May 11 and May 13), Severe cyclone in Gujarat (June 9), Amartya Sen won the Noble Prize in Economics (Oct. 14)
 1999  P.M. Vajpayee arrived in Pakistan by Delhi-Lahore bus (Feb. 20), India successfully launched its first commercial telecom satellite INSAT-2 E from Kourou (Apr. 3), Intense fighting in Kargil (June-July), Devastating cyclone in Orissa and A. P. (Oct.)
 2000  U. S. President Bill Clinton visited India (Mar.) INSAT-3 B launched from Kourou (Mar. 22), Successful test firing of 'Dhanush', the naval version of 'Prithvi' missile (Apr. 11), Karnam Malleshwari wins a bronze at Olympics, Chattisgarh formed (Nov. 1), Uttaranchal formed (Nov. 9), Jharkhand formed (Nov. 15)
 2001  The pilotless target aircraft 'Lakshya' inducted into the Indian Air Force (Jan. 5), Severe earthquake in Gujarat (Ja. 26), the newly-constructed Ennore port dedicated to the nation (Feb. 1), India successfully launches GSLV D-1 from Sriharikota (Apr. 18), Indo-Pak summit at Agra (July 15-16), Lok Pal Bill introduced in Lok Sabha (Aug. 14), Attack on WTC, New York shakes the world (Sept. 11), Lok Sabha passes the bill on "Right to Education till 14" (Nov. 30), Terrorist attack on Indian Parliament (Dec. 13)
 2002  INSAT-3 C launched on Ariane rocket from Kourou in French Guyana (Jan. 24), ISRO successfully tries the indegenious cryogenic engine (Feb. 5), POTO passed in the joint session of the Parliament (Mar. 26), LCA test flown successfully (June 6), Cabinet clears 26% FDI in print media (June 25), Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam elected the President of India (July 18), Bhairon Singh Shekhawat sworn in as Vice-President of India (Aug. 19), India launches METSAT by using PSLV-C4 (Sept. 12), Draft of the Tenth Five-Year Plan approved by the Planning Commission (Oct. 5), BSNL launches mobile phone service (Oct. 15), Vajpayee and Putin sign Delhi declaration (Dec. 4), Kelkar submitted modified report on tax reforms (Dec. 28)
 2003  Kalpana Chawla killed in space shuttle Columbia burnup (Feb. 1); Large reserves of oil & gas discovered in Barmer district of Rajasthan (Feb. 4); US launched attack on Iraq (Mar. 20); INSAT-3A launched from Kourou (Apr. 10); Indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) renamed 'Tejas' (May 4); GSLVD-2 launched from Sriharikota (May 8); First instance of power failure in modern USA (Aug. 15-16); Mars comes closest to Earth (Aug. 27); Govt. approves the purchase of Advanced Jet Trainers, Hawk, from Britain (Sept. 3); INSAT-3E launched from Kourou (Sept. 20); Pope John Paul-ll beautifies Mother Teresa (Oct. 19); First Afro-Asian Games held in Hyderabad (Oct. 24-Nov. 1); India & Pakistan agree to a formal cease-fire along the LOG (Nov. 25); 97th, 98th, 99th & 100th Constitutional Amendment Bills passed (Dec. 18-23)
 2004  Sensex crosses the magical figure of 6000 (Jan. 2); India signs agreement with Russia for obtaining Admiral Gorshkov (Jan. 20); Delhi High Court clears Rajiv Gandhi from the Bofors deal (Feb. 4); 200 killed in Madrid train blast (Mar. 11); Nobel Medals of Rabindra Nath Tagore gets stolen from Shantiniketan (Mar. 25); NDA conducts election before time, but loses unexpectedly, UPA government comes in power, Dr. Manmohan Singh sworn-in as the new PM (May 22); 87 children killed in a fire in in school in Kumbhkonam, Tamil Nadu (July 17); Olympics return to their homeland Athens, Rajyavardhan Rathode wins a silver for India (Aug. 13-29); Hamid Karzai wins the Presidential vote in Afghanistan (Oct. 14); Sandalwood King Veerappan is dead (Oct. 18); George W. Bush re-elected (Nov. 3); Kanchi Shankaracharya Jayendra Saraswati arrested on murder charges (Nov. 11); Yasser Arafat is dead (Nov. 11); Parliament dismissses POTA (Dec. 9); Tsunami causes havoc in South and South East Asia killing more than a lakh (Dec. 26)

24 TIRTHANKARAS

Time rolls along in eternal cycles of rise and decline. Utsarpini is a "rising" era in which human morale and natural conditions improve over time. At the end of Utsarpini, begins Avasarpini, a "declining" era of the same length, in which human morale and virtues deteriorate. During the middle of every rising and declining era twenty-four souls become Tirthankaras. They are the humans like us who rise to that level. While accumulating different karmas, they also accumulate get a special karma called Tirthankar Nam Karma in the last 3rd of their life by performing one or more of the 20 special austerities. Tirthankar Nam Karma matures in the final life and leads the person to become a Tirthankara. After attaining omniscience, Tirthankara reorganize Jain religion to suit the changing times. Tirthankaras are also called Arihantas, Jinas, Kevalis, and Vitragi. Arihant means "destroyer of inner enemies," Jina means "victor of inner enemies," and vitragi means "one who does not have anymore attachment or hatred towards anyone." This means that they are totally detached from worldly aspects. They have destroyed the four ghati karmas, namely Jnanavarniya Karma, Darshanavarniya Karma, Mohniya Karma, and Antaraya Karma. They are Kevaljnani meaning that they know everything everywhere that happened in the past, that is happening now, and that will happen in the future at the same time. They are also Kevaldarshani, meaning that they can see all that happened in the past, that is happening now, and that will happen in the future all at the same time. They reinstate the fourfold order of sadhus (monks), sadhvis (nuns), shravaks (male householders), and shravikas (female householders).

Jains celebrate five major events in the life of a Tirthankar. They are called Kalyanak (auspicious events). They are:

1. Chyavana Kalyanak - This is the event when the Tirthankar's soul departs from its last life, and is conceived in the mother’s womb.

2. Janma Kalyanak - This is the event when the Tirthankar's soul is born.

3. Diksha Kalyanak - This is the event when the Tirthankar's soul givesup all his/her worldly possessions and becames a monk/nun. (Digambar sect does not believe that women can become Tirthankar or be liberated.)

4. Kevaljnana Kalyanak - This is event when Tirthankar’s soul destroys the four ghati karmas completely and attains the Kevaljnana (absolute knowledge). Celestial angels set Samavsaran for Tirthankars from where he/she delivers the first sermon. This is the most important event for the entire Jain order as the Tirthankar reinstates Jain Sangh and preaches the Jain path of purification and liberation.

5. Nirvana Kalyanak - This event is when a Tirthankar’s soul is liberated from this worldly physical existence forever and becomes a Siddha. On this day, the Tirthankar’s soul destroys the four aghati karmas completely, and attains salvation, the state of eternal bliss.

There are other significant events also in the final life of a Tirthankars. When a Tirthankar’s soul is conceived, his/her mother has fourteen dreams (some texts mention sixteen dreams). A Tirthankar’s soul, while even in mother’s womb, has three types of knowledge, namely Matijnan, Shrutjnan, and Avadhijnan. One year before the time of renunciation, a group of celestial angels come to pay homage to the future Tirthankar. They remind him/her that the time to renounce the world is arriving. When a Tirthankar renounces the worldly life, he attains Manahparyavjnan, the fourth type of the knowledge, which enables him/her to know people’s thoughts.

LIST OF 24 TIRTHANKARS

NAME FATHER MOTHER BIRTH PLACE
 1) Rishabha (Adinath)  Nabhi-raja  Maru-Devi  Ayodhya
 2) Ajitnath  Jita Satru  Vijaya-Devi  Ayodhya
 3) Sambhavanath  jitari  Sena  Sravasti
 4) Abhinandannath  Samvara  Siddhartha  Ayodhya
 5) Sumatinath  Megh-Prabha  Sumangala  Ayodhya
 6) Padmabrabha  Dharana (Sidhara)  Susima  Kausambhi
 7) Suparshvanath  Supratishtha  Prithvi  Kasi (Banaras)
 8) Chandraprabha  Mahasena  Lakshmana  Chandrapuri
9) Pushpadanta Sugriva Rama (Supriya) Kakandi(Suvidhinatha)
10) Shiatnath Dridharatha Sunanda Bhadrikapuri
11) Shreyansanath Vishnu Vishnudri (Vishna) Simhapuri
12) Vasupujya Vasupujya Vijaya (jaya) Champapuri
13) Vimalnath Kritvarman Suramya(Syama Kampilya
14) Anantnath Simhasena Sarvavasa Ayodhya
15) Dharmanath Bhanu Suvrata Ratnapuri
16) Shantinath Visvasena Acira Hastinapura
17) Kunthunath Surya(Sura) Sri-Devi Hastinapura
18) Aranath Sudarsana Mitra(Devi Hastinapura
19) Malinath Kumbha Rakshita Mithilapuri
20) Munisuvrata Sumitra Padmavati Kusagranagara(Raj-grih)
21) Nami Natha Vijaya Vapra (Vipra) Mithilapuri (Mathura)
22) Neminatha Samudravijaya Sivadevi Sauripura (Dvaraka)
23) Parsva Natha Asvasena Vama Kasi (Banaras)
24) Mahavira (Vardhamana) Siddharatha Priyakarni (Trishala) Kundapura

LIST OF 24 TIRTHANKARS

 NAME  NUMBER OF  PLACE OF GANADHARAS DEATH  Emblem
 1) Rishabha (Adinath)  84  Mount Kailasa  Bull
 2) Ajitnath  90  Mount Parasnath  Elephant
 3) Sambhav Nath  105  Samet Sikhar  Horse
 4) Abhinandan-Nath  103  Samet Sikhar  Monkey
 5) Sumatinath  116  Samet Sikhar  Curlew
 6) Padmaprabha  111  Samet Sikhar  Red Lotus
 7) Suparshvanath  95  Samet Sikhar  Svastika
 8) Chandra-Prabha  93  Samet Sikhar  Crescent
 9) Pushpadanta  88  Samet Sikhar  Dolphin (Suvidhinath)
10) Shitalnath 81 Samet Sikhar Wishing Tree
11) Shreyamsanath 77 Samet Sikhar Garuda
12) Vasupujya 66 Champapuri Buffalo
13) Vimalnath 55 Mount Parasnath Boar
14) Anantanath 50 Mount Parasnath Bear
15) Dharmanath 43 Mount Parasnath Vajardanda
16) Shantinath 36 Mount Parasnath Deer
17) Kunthunath 35 Mount Parasnath He Ggoat
18) Aranath 30 Mount Parasnath Fish
19) Malinath 28 Mount Parasnath Waterpot
20) Munisuvrata 18 Mount Parasnath Tortoise
21) Naminath 17 Mount Parasnath Blue Lotus
22) Neminath 11 Mount Girnar Conch
23) Parshvanath 10 Mount Parasnath Serpent
24) Mahavira (Vardhamana) 11 Pava Puri Lion

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